The Hiukitak River Elder-Youth Camp
August 7-14, 1998

By
Sandra Eyegetok, Senior Researcher
Natasha Thorpe, Principal Researcher
Iqaluktuuttiaq Elders, Reviewers

October 20, 1998

 


In loving memory of George Kuptana
Piqpagiplugu itqaumayaqqut George Kuptana

George Kuptana

1916 - 1998


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

1.0 BACKGROUND

2.0 INTRODUCTION

3.0 OBJECTIVES

4.0 CAMP PARTICIPANTS

5.0 DAILY ACTIVITIES

5.1 USING AN ELDER-YOUTH CAMP TO COLLECT IEK

5.2 LAND EXPEDITIONS

5.2.1 KINGNEK (meat cache)

5.2.2 TALU (caribou blind)

5.2.3 VEGETATION WALK AND TALK

5.2.4 SURVIVAL SKILLS

5.2.5 CARIBOU HUNT (skinning and packing)

5.2.6 BUTCHERING AND PREPARING THE MEAT

5.2.7 SEWING

5.2.8 STORYTELLING

5.2.9 OTHER CAMP ACTIVITIES

6.0 SUMMARY

7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

QUANA

REFERENCES

 

1.0 BACKGROUND

Lena Kamoayok awoke at her usual time (4 am) and began to prepare her teaching props. She squatted into the gentle light coming through the opening in her tent and, with her army knife, she expertly sliced through the Frosted Flakes box. She sawed with excited determination, fastidiously tracing the outline of a caribou she sketched. Within minutes she produced a target. She would use this to teach the youth how to hunt with the bow and arrows that were already made -- she’d crafted them last month and they had been sitting in a sacred box in her tupiq (tent) ever since.

When the youth awoke several hours later, Lena scarcely let them finish breakfast before she wandered up the hill towards the row of talut (hunting blinds). Silently she beckoned the youth from the caribou skin tent and towards her outdoor classroom. Here they would learn how to hunt caribou, at the same place as their ancestors. -Hiukitak River August 1998

 

Like Lena, many elders in the Bathurst Inlet region feel strongly about teaching their youth traditional Inuit ways of living on the land. Surviving in the north requires a reciprocal relationship with resources such as caribou. Such a relationship necessitates an environmental understanding from both a detailed and holistic perspective. For generations, Inuit living on the land learned from their elders and developed this expertise through experience. This intergenerational and experiential knowledge can be termed Inuit ecological knowledge or IEK. Today, incorporating IEK into community life and resource management will assist the Canadian Inuit as they begin to govern their own territory of Nunavut.

To help meet the challenge of sustainable resource management within Nunavut, community members and decision-makers benefit from well-documented and easily accessible IEK. For communities, sharing and recording IEK provides cultural continuity through story telling. Further, more interactions between elders and community members, particularly youth, are important because they build community pride and empowerment. For decision-makers, IEK often contains important information about an environment in question when proposed land uses must be considered. This is the situation for people of northern communities and organizations in the Kitikmeot region. Currently, they must think about mining activities on lands used by the Bathurst caribou herd for migration, calving, and post-calving. In addition to increasing mining exploration and development, local community members are spending less time on the land practicing traditional ways of living. Most serious, is the fact that elders are passing away before their knowledge of caribou and calving areas of this herd is documented.

For all of these reasons, community members in Iqaluktuuttiaq (Cambridge Bay), Qingauk (Bathurst Inlet), Qurluqtuq (Kugluktuk), and Umingmaktuuq (Bay Chimo) asked for research to document and communicate IEK concerning caribou and calving areas of the Bathurst herd of barrenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus). This request led to a two-year research project known as the Tuktu (Caribou) and Nogak (Calf) Project. The project’s community advisory board insisted that youth play an important role in all research. More specifically, it was said that no stories should be told or lessons shared unless at least one youth was present. One possible way to meet this goal was through an elder-youth camp at a traditional caribou-hunting site. The board decided to use this approach, and the camp became a critical component of the project.

The following report details activities from the Hiukitak River Elder-Youth Camp. First the camp is described, and reasons are presented that explain why the camp is an important way to ensure cultural continuity and document Inuit ecological knowledge of caribou and calving areas. A detailed description of camp activities follows. Please note that there are no quotes from elders because they have not verified the audio-and video-tapes yet. When verified, transcripts will be stored at the Kitikmeot Inuit Association.

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2.0 INTRODUCTION

In 1997, board members and people in Iqaluktuuttiaq, Qingauk, Qurluqtuq, and Umingmaktuuq suggested that an elder-youth camp would be an important part of the collecting Inuit ecological knowledge for the project. With the hard work of many people and generosity of numerous funding agencies, their request was granted and a one-week elder-youth camp took place at a traditional campsite on the Hiukitak River from August 7-14, 1998. At this special place, elders shared their understanding of caribou with the youth by telling stories and demonstrating Inuit traditions.

Hiukitak River is northeast of Qingauk and south of Umingmaktuuq. The river has sandy beaches and tall avaalaqiaryuat (birches). Moses Koihok explains that the Hiukitak River is named for its sandy beaches. The area is abundant with fish, an occasional seal and is a natural naalut (caribou crossing area). Although the camp was held after the kulavait (cows) and nurrait (calves) had passed through, we saw lots of pangniit (bulls) every day that we were there.

Community members and the board volunteered elder participants for the camp. Youth were chosen through a contest where they had to either draw a picture or write a one or two page letter explaining why the camp was important to them. Board members also selected Tuktu and Nogak staff. Sam Itkilik from the Inuit Broadcasting Corporation (IBC) in Baker Lake attended the camp to film several documentaries that focused on Inuit knowledge of caribou and calving around the Bathurst Inlet area. Elders, youth and staff researchers came from the Kitikmeot region.

Training for research partners and youth never stops partly because it builds skills in the community and for the project. Research partners and youth assistants are trained in methods to conduct oral traditions research, such as computer and mapping skills, safety, and plant identification. In turn, the principal researcher is taught how to be sensitive to Inuit culture and to track, hunt, and butcher caribou.

Continuous training provides the research group with skills to work together and make use of what they know. Inuit elders and hunters share their knowledge about wildlife, climate, vegetation and other issues related to caribou and calving areas. Research partners and youth contribute their awareness of the north in general, and of their communities, in particular. The principal researcher understands qabloonaq (white person) ways and can share her knowledge about "computers, papers and pens" (Kuptana 1998). Together, we co-operate to draw upon our diverse strengths and experiences.

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3.0 OBJECTIVES

The elders chose the Hiukitak River as a site for the camp because this used to be a traditional caribou hunting camp. Also, this site is distant from the current calving grounds: it would be disrespectful and disturbing to camp too close to where the cows are calving because this is a sensitive time for the animals. Mid-August was the best time to hold the camp for two reasons. First, the bug season was finished. Second, there are always lots of pangniit (bulls) at this traditional camp, hunting location and caribou crossing.

The goal of the project is to collect and share data on caribou and calving grounds in the Bathurst Inlet Region through video, written and tape recorded documentation. The objectives that guide the project are to:

 

During the camp, the elders also identified the following research priorities:

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4.0 CAMP PARTICIPANTS

A total of twenty-eight people attended the camp. Of these, there were nine elders, seven youth, five paid staff, three volunteer staff, and four young children. Although this number was more than we had planned for, it provided a good balance of people of different ages and from various communities.

The following elders attended the camp:

Akana, John

Umingmaktuuq

Alonak, Jack

Qurluqtuq

Kamoayok, Lena

Umingmaktuuq

Kaniak, David

Iqaluktuuttiaq

Kaniak, Mary

Umingmaktuuq

Komak, Annie

Iqaluktuuttiaq

Omilgoitok,Bessie

Iqaluktuuttiaq

Omilgoitok, Paul

Iqaluktuuttiaq

Tonogahak, Ella

Umingmaktuuq

 

The Hiukitak River Elder-Youth Camp poses in front of the caribou skin tent made by Ella Tonogahak Panegyuk of Umingmaktuuq.

Back (L to R): Stephanie Akoluk, Joseph Jr. Tikhak, Karen Kamoayok,Vanna Klengenberg, Lena Kamoayok, Bessie Omilgoitok, Paul Omilgoitok, Mary Kaniak, David Kaniak, and Natasha Thorpe.
Middle (L to R): Ella Panegyuk, Shendra Thorpe, Sandra Eyegetok, Eileen Kakolak, George Panegyuk, Jack Alonak, Cynthia Niptanatiak, and Nathan Kakolak.
Front (L to R): Becky Kakolak, Neil Mala, Logan Kaniak, Koaha Kakolak, Sam Itkilik, Annie Komak, Arnold Angivrana, Jason Akoluk, and John Akana. Missing: Bobby Kakolak.


These youth participated in the camp:

Akoluk, Jason

Qingauk

Akoluk, Stephanie

Qingauk

Angivrana, Arnold

Qurluqtuq

Kamoayok, Karen

Umingmaktuuq

Klengenberg, Vanessa

Umingmaktuuq

Mala, Neal

Iqaluktuuttiaq

Niptanatiak, Cynthia

Qurluqtuq

 

Staff for the camp included:

Angulalik, Martha

Iqaluktuuttiaq

Eyegetok, Sandra

Iqaluktuuttiaq

Kakolak, Eileen

Umingmaktuuq

Panegyuk, George

Umingmaktuuq

Thorpe, Natasha

Vancouver, BC

 

With approval from the board, Sam Itkilik was the video documentary cameraman and Bobby Kakolak and Shendra Thorpe were volunteers who helped with camp maintenance, baby-sitting and other chores. Day visitors included Ikey and Mabel Evalik, Peter and Martina Kapolak, Clarence and Emma Klengenberg, and Allen and Adelaide Maghagak.

 

The youth, elders, and researchers sat down in a circle near the talut (hunting blinds), crunching colourful autumn mosaic patterns as they lowered their bodies onto the tundra. Perched on this viewpoint, they could see the giant willows below -- a tangled mess of arms and legs frozen beside a sliver of silver sand. Peering from the tangled willows were ten stark white canvas tents circled around one camouflaged hand-made caribou skin tent. The arrangement of the tents mirrored our learning circle — the future embracing and enveloping the past. On the floodplain across the river, a lone wolf cautiously stalked a caribou, frequently creeping back to her den to mind her pups. -Hiukitak River August 1998

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5.0 DAILY ACTIVITIES

At the request of the elders, we met in this circle every morning for prayer and to check the weather before deciding which skills to teach the youth. Although the elders and the staff were up everyday by 6:00 am, the elders requested that daily meetings commence at 10:00 am to plan activities. Some people would volunteer or be nominated to lead a particular activity such as using a talu (hunting blind) to hunt caribou with a bow and arrow. If there was not enough time to include all the activities on one particular day, we would tentatively plan them for the next. Usually we worked as one group, but sometimes we divided into two groups for part of the day. There was no need for a camp schedule (other than for assigning camp chores), and flexibility was important because of changes in weather and people’s energy levels.

The weather was uncooperative for the first day, so the principal researcher and senior research partner did not arrive along with the rest of the gear until the second day. The first day was spent meeting and renewing relationships and organizing sleeping and camping arrangements.

Daily events included land expeditions, storytelling and the sharing of Inuit knowledge of caribou. Youth were also taught some traditional sewing techniques. Other pastimes included a church service, baseball and barbecue, bonfire, berry picking, preparing and cooking traditional foods such as uuyuq (boiled caribou meat) and muqpauyaq (bannock), fetching drinking water, gasoline, supplies and disposing of waste. Youth continually observed and identified wildlife around the area.

Collecting data included recording, photographing and video-documenting interviews, stories, and land expeditions. The youth also kept a daily journal with a list of new Inuinnaqtun words as well as their experiences, stories and activities.

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5.1 USING AN ELDER-YOUTH CAMP TO COLLECT IEK

The land provided a special setting for elders to give hands-on lessons in traditional ways of living related to caribou. Youth learned through experience, practiced their language, and connected with their elders and mentors in this setting. At the same time, researchers and youth documented IEK.

An elder-youth camp can be a dependable way of collecting IEK for two reasons. First, by organizing daily lessons around caribou related activities (e.g., hunting), elders are deciding which IEK is most important. They screen out some stories and choose to share those containing only the most crucial material. In this way, recorded information is more useful for the project as well as for community members and decision-makers.

Second, elders want to communicate IEK in a way that ensures Inuit traditions will continue. Since they are teaching youth rather than adults, elders are more apt to ensure that traditions are presented clearly, whether through stories, discussions, and demonstrations. When necessary, the youth can ask the elders to repeat or restate their observations and provide more detail. During the Hiukitak camp, many elders explained their fear for those who do not know traditional ways of living on the land such how to hunt caribou. Without this knowledge, they feel that people may be in danger. In a camp environment, elders feel a strong sense of responsibility to communicate IEK for the survival of Inuit culture, tradition and subsistence.

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5.2 LAND EXPEDITIONS

Land expeditions included lessons about traditional qingnit (meat caches), talut (caribou blinds), anguniaqpauhiniq (hunter’s survival skills), tuktuhiuqtut (caribou hunting), amiiyaiyuq (taking fur off), aakturniq (skinning), pilangniq (slicing meat) and niqiliqinirlu (butchering meat). A vegetation walk and talk helped us learn more about what caribou eat and how they use the tundra.

The elders planned to give a demonstration on a hapu (fish weir), but they were unable to boat up to the falls because the water was too low. Since the area was unsuitable to build a hapu the elders decided to put a fish net out in front of the camp for the youth to maintain instead.

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5.2.1 QINGNIT (meat cache)

Mary Kaniak took the youth, elders and staff on a 10 minute hike up the hill to show them a qingniq. Research assistants and youth conducted an interview with Mary Kaniak while the other elders gave her their support. The trip involved students asking questions, observing, photographing, video-documenting and recording the activity. Mary explained what, how, when and why the qingniq was built. She reported that it was built before her time and used by her family when she was a little girl. She thinks it may be used still.

One curious youth asked how Inuit of long ago managed to build a qingniq with such heavy rocks. Mary explained that the Inuit were very healthy and strong which were traits needed for basic survival off the land. Today, survival does not depend merely on strength since we now live in communities.

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5.2.2 TALU (caribou blind)

John Akana, Jack Alonak, Lena Kamoayok and the other elders held a demonstration of how the talu was used in the days when Inuit did not have rifles. Lena and the elders explained how the talu was made and when it would be used. Lena brought her hand-made arrows from home and explained that the bow and arrows were made from caribou bones and antlers and copper long ago. Lena made a cardboard caribou to use as a target and placed it at a distance from the talu. The youth were instructed by the elders on how to use a bow and arrow. All participants were encouraged to use the bow and arrow to hit the caribou target.

One youth commented on how Lena’s bow and arrows looked simple to use, but when it came time for him to try, he soon learned that great patience, technique and experience were required. Many youth enjoyed learning about the talu and the bow and arrow. As the week progressed, the youth attempted to use the bow and arrow whenever caribou were sighted. Unfortunately, training and endurance were needed and they did not kill any caribou. The elders were proud and commended the youth for all of their attempts.

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5.2.3 VEGETATION WALK AND TALK

Early during the week, one group sat in the caribou skin tent made by Ella Tonogahak Panegyuk and learned how it was made while the other group went to explore the tundra vegetation. The elders chose an area with a variety of vegetation where an interview was conducted by both the youth and researchers. The talk consisted of what caribou ate, where such vegetation can be found and identifying the Inuinnaqtun names for different types of plants. Bessie Omilgoitok gave a personal demonstration on how caribou eat avalikiak (dwarf birch) by stripping the leaves from the branches with her teeth. Don’t worry though, she didn’t swallow the leaves like caribou. She spit them out!

The elders showed the youth how to identify what caribou eat by examining the stomach contents. The elders said that caribou like to eat avaalaqiallu uqpiillu (dwarf birch and willows). Following on what George Kuptana said before he passed away, Jack Alonak explained that caribou really like to eat kaiptauyat (mushrooms). He said that a mushroom is a caribou water bottle and that caribou eat them to keep their mouth moist with them. Paul Omilgoitok added that mushrooms were caribou snuff that they chewed all day long.

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5.2.4 SURVIVAL SKILLS

John Akana, Jack Alonak, David Kaniak, Paul Omilgoitok, and George Panegyuk went out on a land expedition with the young men to teach them about Inuit traditional first aid and basic survival skills. This trip included lessons on how to be aware of the changing environment and to respect the wildlife according to customs, myths and beliefs. The youth learned how to use the land so as not to get lost.

Lena lends a hand

Lena Kamoayok shows Junior Tikhak how to hunt using a bow and arrow.

At the Camp

Youths take turns hunting from behind a blind (talu).

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5.2.5 CARIBOU HUNT (skinning and packing)

The elder men led a group of young men on a caribou hunt up the river. The youth were taught the special skills and techniques one must use to stalk, skin, butcher and carry the caribou. They learned how to use all of the caribou parts. The hunt was a success and they brought a large and fat pangniq (bull) back to the camp for the women to prepare.

While the men were hunting, they shared their knowledge of the relationship between caribou and the environment. We recorded discussions about the types of plants that caribou like to eat and where they are typically located. For example, the elders explained that caribou like to graze on willows and that the tallest willows grow beside rivers. They also shared some hunting tips such as finding the fattest bull by the size of its rump. They answered many questions from curious youth.

Jack Alonak explained that you must be very patient when hunting and that you must know which way the wind is blowing so the caribou don’t smell you. You should remain still while you wait for the right moment to shoot and aim for the lower section of the neck so that the caribou will die quickly. He remembered using one arrow to kill two caribou that were standing side-by-side.

Paul Omilgoitok and George Panegyuk shot the caribou and fired their rifles at the exact same time so it sounded like only one shot. When the gun fired, it was like a starter pistol that began a race of sprinting young men who jumped from their hiding spot and ran across the tundra to finish where the bull lay dead. Once everybody gathered together around the animal, the elders explained that each community has a slightly different way of butchering. The elders showed and instructed the young men how to make every cut. They explained that you must be careful when cutting the hide, especially during the fall time, so that it was in good shape for the women to use.

One young man was very excited because he had never been on a caribou hunt before. The elders were careful to repeat their lessons to make sure he understood and encouraged him to participate frequently. He was very grateful for being given the opportunity to skin and carry his first caribou. The experience of the hunt has a left memorable and educational impact on this young man. After this event, there was a noticeable increase in his self-esteem and with it grew more pride and respect for Inuit culture.

Packing the caribou back to camp proved to be an exciting challenge for the young men. The elders showed them how to carry the legs like a yoke on their shoulders and the rib cage as a suitcase on their back. First they placed the heart and liver inside the ribs, then sealed it up by pulling the diaphragm from the sternum across the base of the ribcage, and secured it on the spine. The young men took turns carrying the caribou suitcase back to camp, grunting and panting along the way. They trudged across the tundra until the weight stopped them and, sweating, they passed it along to the next youth. The elder men followed behind, both proud of and amused by the young men’s efforts.

Men have special knowledge about caribou, particularly concerning relationships between caribou and the land, for example, grazing, rutting, migration and calving behaviour. As research assistants, the youth helped to bring forth this understanding as they asked questions throughout the hunt. The principal researcher decided to save her questions for when everybody returned to camp and remained silent to allow for the hunt to proceed naturally. This worked well because it was not disruptive and it encouraged the elders to re-live an empowering and positive experience once back at camp. This also enabled research partners who were not able to attend the hunt, to participate in the questioning.

Learning to skin a caribou

Elder Paul Omilgoitok shows Arnold Angivrana and Jason Akoluk how to skin caribou.

 

What caribou eat

Elders and youths gather to discuss tundra vegetation.
Bessie Omilgoitok explains that caribou like to eat dwarf birch.
Jack Alonak says that mushrooms are a favourite food for caribou.

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5.2.6 BUTCHERING AND PREPARING THE MEAT

After the successful hunt by the men, elders Lena Kamoayok, Mary Kaniak, Annie Komak, Bessie Omilgoitok and Ella Panegyuk set out the task of the finer details of butchering. All of the elder women were involved in the preparation of drying and caring for the meat by cooling the meat, identifying different cuts and uses of the meat, skin preparation, cleaning and drying the sinew, and recognizing bad meat (e.g. brucellosis). The young women eagerly cut and slivered the different cuts of meat while the elders watched over them. They were also taught the proper care and safety of using the ulu (women’s knife).

As the elders began working with the young women, they explained that part of surviving on the land is making sure that you prepare caribou for everybody in the community to enjoy. Using an ulu (knife), they sliced the meat into various wedges. Some pieces were thick for the elders since it is easier for them to chew slightly raw meat. Others must be thin and dry, as the younger people generally prefer. The elders made sure that the young women understood the importance of sharing in Inuit culture, by thinking of everybody when preparing food.

One young woman enjoyed making mipku (dry meat) so much that she had wished that the men had caught more caribou! Now that she has the skills, she can go home to her community and teach her friends and family members. She has the experience to help out with making meat in the future.

The elders showed the young women how to stretch out the hide for drying. The young women had to pound sticks through the skin and into the tundra to keep it stretched out. A few days later, the elders told the girls to flip the hides so that they could dry in the sun. At the end of the camp, the elders took home three qaaq (caribou-skin mattress).

Men appear to have a broader understanding of caribou and ecosystem relationships, whereas women have better knowledge of details. For example, women know about meat quality because they work so close with it during preparation. They know to look for pus, swelling of the joints or a bad odour that might indicate a sick caribou. They can tell the types of vegetation that a caribou has been eating because of the smell and taste of the meat or the stomach contents. For example, caribou taste more like lichens during the winter and like willows in the summer. It is important to recognize the respective expertise of men and women when documenting IEK of caribou.

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5.2.7 SEWING

While the men went out hunting, Lena Kamoayok, Mary Kaniak, Annie Komak, Bessie Omilgoitok and Ella Panegyuk held a storytelling and sewing lesson. The young women were taught how to cut and sew traditional clothing such as mitts, duffles and slippers. Many of the girls sewed mitts or duffles for themselves to take home as momentos of the camp. Unfortunately, neither a iqtuqhit (beginning scraper) nor halukhit (finishing scraper) was available to prepare the skin for sewing, but different seasonal uses of the skin were discussed.

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5.2.8 STORYTELLING

 Listening to stories told by the elders was almost a daily event. Many of the stories were mythical, legend or factual. The elder men told stories about growing up and hunting by dogsled, walking with dogs and their dog packs and using traditional hunting tools. Sisters Lena Kamoayok and Mary Kaniak talked about where they used to travel as young girls.

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5.2.9 OTHER CAMP ACTIVITIES

Other activities included learning about and tracking wolves, berry-picking, playing baseball and barbecuing, swimming, checking fishnets, fetching drinking water, maintaining camp area, hiking, disposing of garbage, a scavenger hunt, conducting a church service, playing traditional games, drum-dancing and singing.

A scavenger hunt was very educational for the youth. The elders helped to make a list of items for the youth to find. To make sure that it was challenging for the youth, they requested that the list be in Inuinnaqtun. The items included uryuit (sphagnum moss), kanguuyat (cotton grass), patqit (caribou bones), uqpiit (willow), avalikiak (alder), paun’ngat (bearberry), tulimaat (caribou ribs), nukit (caribou tendons), and more. Each item was discussed earlier during the week. To obtain clues for the items on the list that the youth had forgot the Inuinnaqtun names for, they had to use and practice their language to consult the elders or review their journals. The scavenger hunt brought the elders many laughs and tears and the youth the confidence of speaking Inuinnaqtun and exercise (until one youth mildly sprained his ankle!) Everybody was given prizes such as pins, hats, t-shirts and pens that were donated by supporting agencies such as KEDC, KIA, NIRB, NPC, NTI, and NWMB.

Drum dancing and singing were the other notable activities. Early in the week, the elders held a short demonstration on how to sing, dance and use the caribou skin drum that Lena Kamoayok made. Thereafter, the youth would be drumming and singing off in the distance nightly or during their free time. Even though the youth thought that they were out of earshot from the elders, they were heard loud and clear. Though inexperienced, the youth sounded very good and it brought smiles and a sense of pride to the elders. Hearing them sing and drum out in the wilderness with no other noise pollution brought everybody a sense of humbleness and togetherness.

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6.0 SUMMARY

The elder-youth camp was tremendously successful. In running smoothly, the camp met the requirements of good communication, organization and documentation. Most importantly, the elders gave skills, culture, experience and knowledge as gifts. The youth showed enthusiasm, cooperation and an eagerness to learn which was noticeable in their attempts, attitudes and morale. Stories about caribou and calving grounds were shared and many data were collected. Together, these positive elder-youth experiences and Inuit knowledge recordings will provide a legacy of memories that will last well beyond the camp.

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7.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

The elder-youth camp was an innovative and valuable learning environment for youth, especially for those who may have never been out on the land much before. It is hoped that the camp, as well as the collected data, are significant factors in raising awareness of the importance of preserving Inuit ecological knowledge of caribou and calving grounds around the Bathurst Inlet area.

The purpose of this report is to show community members, camp participants as well as supporting agencies, the importance of elder-youth camps in preserving, communicating and documenting Inuit knowledge and culture. Results from this camp will form part of the final products for the Tuktu and Nogak Project. These will help governments in decision-making in all aspects of managing tuktut (caribou) and nurrait (calves) grounds and make the general public aware of the need to devote time and energy to preserve and promote Inuit culture for future generations.

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QUANA

In presenting this report, the Tuktu and Nogak Project wishes to give thanks to the many elders, youth, researchers and staff whose devotion and hard work made the camp possible. Without them, this camp would not have been the success that it was.

We would also like to acknowledge the funding assistance, logistical support, and cooperation from the following agencies: Arctic Institute of North America, Association of Canadian Universities for Northern Studies, BHP Minerals Inc., Calm Air (Canadian North), First Air, Government of the Northwest Territories (Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development; Department of Education, Culture and Education), Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Inuit Broadcasting Corporation, Iqaluktuuttiaq Co-op, Iqaluktuuttiaq Elder's Centre, Iqaluktuuttiaq Hunters and Trappers Organization, Kitikmeot Economic Development Commission, Kitikmeot Inuit Association, Northern Scientific Training Program, Northern Stores, Nunavut Arctic College, Nunavut Impact Review Board, Nunavut Planning Commission, Nunavut Tunngavik Inc., Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Simon Fraser University, Umingmaktuuq Hunters and Trappers Organization, and the West Kitikmeot/Slave Study Society.

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REFERENCES

Ferguson, M.A.D., Williamson, R.G. and F. Messier. 1998. Inuit knowledge of long-term changes in a population of arctic tundra caribou. Arctic 51(3): 201-219.

Gwich’in Elders. 1997. Gwich’in Words about the Land. Gwich’in Renewable Resource Board. Inuvik, NT: Gwich’in Graphics.

Scott, J.C. 1998. "Thin Simplications and Practical Knowledge: Metis". In Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale University Press. 309-341.

Thorpe, N.L. 1997. The Tuktu and Nogak Project: Inuit knowledge about caribou and calving areas in the Bathurst Inlet region. Arctic 50(4): 381-384.

Thorpe, N.L. 1998. The Hiukitak school of tuktu: collecting Inuit ecological knowledge of caribou and calving areas through an elder-youth camp. Arctic 51(4). In press.

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